X-rays were originally discovered by German physicist Roentgen in 1895 and were used without a deeper fundamental understanding in the œelds of radiography, which allowed shadow pictures of opaque objects to be taken so that their internal structure could be explored. It was discovered that they ažected photographic œlm in the same way as visible light albeit much more penetrating than visible light. However, the limiting resolution of internal features was limited to 10−3 mm. It was not until 1912 that the phenomenon of XRD by crystals was established as well as the wave nature of x-rays. šis discovery allowed for observation of structure of the order of 10−7 mm in size. Max von Laue, in 1912, discovered that crystalline substances act as three-dimensional dižraction gratings for x-ray wavelengths similar to the spacing of planes in a crystal lattice.