This chapter can be viewed as an outline of doing arithmetic and basic statistical computations in R. The tasks illustrated involve the fundamentals needed to perform more complex computations in later chapters. Note that from here on the symbol “” at the beginning of executed

command lines, and the bracketed number preceding each output line, for example [1], will be left out except where the distinction between a command line and an output line is not clear. Also, all code for this and later chapters are entered and run in the R script editor.