Synergy is a situation where the final outcome of a system is greater

than the sum of the parts. According to this definition, membrane

reactors are a clear example of synergy: we expect that the reac-

tor performance will significantly improve because of the use of the

membrane or that the reactionwill enhance the permeation through

the membrane. In fact, membrane reactors are one of the work-

horses in process intensification and a clear example of multifunc-

tional reactors. Although many membrane reactors are already in

operation in low-temperature applications (e.g., membrane biore-

actors and enzyme-supported reactors) (Rios et al., 2004), most of the envisaged applications related with energy will need to operate

at high temperatures. For operation at high temperatures or under

harsh chemical conditions, the use of inorganicmembranes becomes

necessary, since polymeric membranes are not resistant enough.

This chapter will review the current state of the art in the field of

inorganicmembrane reactors for energy-related applications, show-

ing with more detail the achievements that in the author’s opinion

are nearing industrial application, and will discuss three new sys-

tems where the use of inorganic membrane reactors can be helpful

in applications related with the energy and fuel industries.