Getting Established in England
DOI link for Getting Established in England
Getting Established in England book
Although De Moivre had left religious turmoil behind in France, he stepped into the midst of Protestant unrest in England. During the seventeenth century, England had its own problems with respect to religion and politics. There had been a civil war in the mid-seventeenth century which saw the king deposed and executed, and the Church of England disestablished as the state church. Upon the Restoration in 1660, the Church of England was again made the state church and other denominations that did not adhere to the established church were subjected to discriminatory acts of Parliament. When Charles II died in 1685, his brother James was proclaimed king. However, James II had openly converted to Catholicism. The situation was tolerated by the political and religious elites until James’s wife gave birth to a boy, an heir who would be raised a Catholic. Fear of further religious and political upheaval in England spread; James was deposed in the Revolution of 1688 and replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange. James fled to France and, supported by Louis XIV, plotted his return to the throne, as did his son after James’s death in 1701. One of the key players who brought William and Mary to the throne was William Cavendish, 1st Duke (at the time 4th Earl) of Devonshire. A Whig peer, Devonshire was one of a group of seven who had invited William of Orange to invade and was instrumental in the decisions of the Convention Parliament of 1689 that made William and Mary joint monarchs.