In this chapter, the discussion of auditory processing begun in the last chapter is continued by examining the role that attention plays in helping to identify and select an acoustic pattern of interest. Next, higher-order processes involved in audition, which can be viewed as the real heart of auditory cognition, are discussed. Some would go as far as to call these abilities auditory intelligence (de Beauport & Diaz, 1996), suggesting that as humans we vary in our ability to interpret and ‘nd meaning in the sounds we hear. Viewed in this way, auditory intelligence involves the degree to which we are able to go beyond merely hearing sounds to higher-order processing-involving not only taking in sounds, but also “words, tones of voice, and arriving at a sophisticated or comprehensive meaning … and connecting inner meaning to a sound received from the outer environment” (de Beauport & Diaz, 1996, p. 45). Individuals may differ in their ability to construct meaning from sound because of talent or experience, but regardless, the same basic processes are used by all listeners.