It has been said that those who do not remember history are doomed to repeat it. It seems that even if you do remember history, the same thing can happen again. The modern era of liquid chromatography (LC) began in the 1960s with the development of superˆcially porous particles, which gave this separation technique the speed of operation that it needed to compete with the well-established gas chromatography methodology then in widespread use. Gas chromatography was not well suited for the separation of compounds that could not be put into a vapor state without decomposing. Such compounds were becoming more important to researchers as the development of products for pharmaceutical, agrichemical, and the plastics industries began to emerge.