The Cyborg and Cyborgization
DOI link for The Cyborg and Cyborgization
The Cyborg and Cyborgization book
In the early 1960s, Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline, two NASA researchers, coined the term cyborg from the combination of the words cybernetic and organism (Gray, Figueroa-Sarriera, and Mentor 1995). Clynes and Kline wrote, “for the exogenously extended organizational complex functioning as an integrated homeostatic system unconsciously, we propose the term ‘cyborg.’ The cyborg deliberately controls function of the organism in order to adapt it to new environments” (Clynes and Kline 1995, 30-31). The proposed purpose of the cyborg was to provide a system in which robot-like behaviors and actions are integrated into an automatic and allostatically balanced organization that is in some way integrated into human function, leaving humans free to explore and to ¢ourish.