Fermentation of all types of food raw materials has been a celebrated human practice since antiquity. Cereals-or the fruits of Gramineae, mainly wheat, rye, rice, maize, barley, oats, sorghum, and millet-have been fermented to various products in different parts of the world. Fermentation contributes several advantages to the food, including (a) addition of new tastes, avors, aromas, and textures, (b) preservation, (c) enhancement of the nutritional value of food by increasing digestibility and production of vitamins, (d) elimination of toxic substances, and (e) decrease of cooking time and energy. Thus, fermentation alters food shape, texture, and avor; increases its nutritional value; and promotes safety.