The results of Chapters 2 and 3, which apply to the use of simulation in science, are also relevant for the provision of policy advice based on scientic simulations. Although most scientic simulations of nature are not used in policymaking, and policy advice is often given without using simulation, there are many important examples of policymaking that do rely on simulation outcomes. One of the prime examples is that of climate change, discussed in Section II of this study. Other examples are biodiversity loss; pollution of soil, water, and air; the design and management of nuclear weapons; the changes and spread of animal viruses (e.g., ‘bird ˜u’); automobile passenger safety; and so on.