Novel concepts of reliability technology Peter Drucker has said that innovation-that is, activities increasing the value and satisfaction that consumers experience-raises the productivity and pro‚tability of economic resources.* He added that to pursue higher goals, actions taken toward those goals must not simply be performed better, but must also be performed differently-that is, speci‚c new processes that go beyond current habitual behaviors should be established. Such processes are generated by new methodologies that re¡ect novel concepts. A willingness to evaluate concepts that are commonly accepted uncritically can lead to new ways of considering reliability. To begin this process, various concepts need to be examined, such as the de‚nition of reliability, the form of failure phenomena, the reliability targets for satisfactory unit items in the ‚nal product, and the statistical de‚nition of reliability indices.