Advances in battery technology and materials used have been linked to electronic device applications. Incorporation of microelectronics, microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS), and nanotechnologies in the design of these batteries could lead to significant improvements in energy density, shelf life, cycle life, and residual leakage. Ultimate size, weight, reliability, and energy density are limited by the chemistry used in the design of batteries. A review of technical papers on low-power batteries reveals that advancements in materials and packaging have resulted in significant changes in older batteries, including alkalinemanganese batteries, nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries, and lead-acid batteries. Existing batteries such as primary and secondary (rechargeable) lithium-based batteries, zinc-air (Zn-air) batteries, and Ni-Cd batteries are fully commercialized to meet ever-increasing demands for energy density without affecting weight and size. is commercialization represents the greatest challenge for the battery designers and material scientists.