Invention in EVs and HEVs was demonstrated as early as 1900. The Baker EVs, which demonstrated a top speed exceeding 22 miles per hour (mph), were popular in the early 1900s [1]. Jay Leno, the host of The Tonight Show, owns one such vehicle, which is still operational. A hybrid EV using batteries and chargers was developed and tested by Walter Baker in the first hybrid-based electric car (the Torpedo). This particular hybrid electric car


demonstrated a dash speed of 75 mph in 1902. As far as battery capabilities are concerned, a nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) battery was developed by Thomas Edison with performance characteristics similar to a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery in terms of energy density and production cost. The battery designer predicted that Li-ion batteries could last for decades, showing acceptable degradation in performance.