National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and rownaway Children (NISMART-2) deªnitions were used in this book for missing children, but NISMART-2 does not deªne an IFCA. For the purpose of this book the following deªnition will be used to deªne an IFCA:†

US Attorney General John Ashcro¡ is quoted as saying, “e abduction of a child is a tragic and traumatic event. It is also a serious crime. When the abductor is a parent and the child is taken to another country, the emotional trauma to the child and le¡-behind parent can be great, as can the challenge to law enforcement.”‡

What does the law enforcement community know about this type of abduction? When such abductions occur, to whom does the ªrst responder/ investigator turn? Who does the detective turn to when they get the case? What is the response to the demand by the le¡-behind parent for action to be taken? Who does the prosecutor turn to when the o¥cer, detective, or

the chief wants guidance in this kidnapping? What do any of these criminal justice o¥cials know about the criminal or civil procedure when it comes to the investigation, seeking a warrant, prosecuting, and most of all the locating and recovering of a child who has been abducted or kidnapped by one of their parents and taken out of the United States?