This chapter starts with a presentation of the seismic action and of seismic design philosophy considered to be fundamental premises for development and understanding specific structural analysis and design methods for earthquake prone buildings. Principal consequences resulted from analysis of these premises are further synthesized in specific requirements for structures subjected to high intensity seismic actions. Currently used elastic analysis and design approach based on equivalent seismic force is thoroughly examined and commented. Taking explicitly into account the post-elastic character of the seismic response, pushover procedures are a significant step toward its correct modeling. Besides the classical approach described within Chapter 3 advanced methods of seismic pushover analysis are discussed: adaptive pushover procedures, multi-modal analysis, and spatial (3D) pushover analysis. The dynamic post-elastic analysis of single-degree-of-freedom systems and the derived notion of inelastic spectra are further presented along with their practical use in seismic analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures. The presentation is further extended to multi-degreeof-freedom systems. Finally, themodern seismic performance based design is described and commented upon.