A 21-year-old man presents with painless haematuria which he has noticed in the last 3 days. He suffers from type 1 diabetes which is well controlled, but is otherwise fit and healthy. The patient has recently recovered from a mild throat infection. Urine dipstick analysis reveals blood and protein in the urine. The most likely diagnosis is:

A. Henoch-Schonlein purpura B. Benign prostate hypertrophy C. IgA nephropathy D. Diabetic nephropathy E. Urinary tract infection (UTI)

2. Hyponatraemia

A 74-year-old type 2 diabetic woman undergoes a bowel resection for cancer of the colon. She is well prior to the operation with well-controlled diabetes and no other underlying disease. The operation is successful and the patient is given postoperative insulin and IV dextrose. Two days after the operation she becomes very agitated.