Retinal artery (B) and vein (A) occlusion are also painless and of sudden onset, but they typically occur in older patients and result in prolonged visual loss. Amaurosis fugax may herald retinal artery occlusion which is confirmed on ophthalmoscopy showing oedema and a cherry red macula. It is also a complication of giant cell (temporal) arteritis. Retinal haemorrhages and cotton wool spots are typically seen in retinal vein occlusion. Optic neuritis (D) is associated with MS and patients complain of painful, blurred vision. Acute angle glaucoma (E), again seen in older patients, presents with painful, blurred vision. Patients describe ‘seeing haloes around things’.