Some of the most current thinking on “business” recognizes two key concepts that Figure 4.2 tries to capture. First is the concept that all human endeavors are based upon “processes.” The second is that, even in the smallest of organizations, the output can also be described as a result of a system of systems. A third concept, which I will not even try to define, is the concept of “green.” Whatever the concept, construct, or paradigm (pick your choice), they will underline and connect much of the material here. The first two concepts led to development of Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2 is a supporting and an alternative approach to the concept conveyed in Figure 4.1 so it is important to discuss both when one examines hazardous materials, environmental impact, and life cycle management. We hear the expressions “going green,” “green technologies,” “green jobs and technologies,” and “green communities and green buildings.” At this point in time, there are no universally

agreed-upon definitions or even a reasonably small number of definitions to cover each of those terms, but conceptually, in addition to lowering energy use, they all are addressing the underlying basis for life cycle management and the concept of hazardous materials life cycle management. This text uses the broadest possible interpretation of “hazardous materials” here.