As with terrorism and espionage, deception has its problematics with definition. For example, an individual may intend to deceive but not successfully deceive. That individual’s intent to deceive may be part of some other individual’s successful deception in that the first individual’s intent to deceive has been desired by the second individual because it will likely lead to some consequence desired by that second individual, not the first. As with the vicarious conditioning described in Chapter 3, observers of the first two individuals may be affected in a manner leading to their intents to deceive and actual deception attempts. And readers should note that all espionage and much of terrorism are but examples subsumed by whatever deception may be.