Rarity’s talk triggered me to write up a two-page assessment of this technology and fax it to Robert Guenther, who was then the head of the physics division at the Army Research Oce (ARO) in Durham, North Carolina. I laid out the history of quantum cryptography from the mid-1980s and the potential use of a system with a 6-to 10-mile radius to the army in the battleeld. e ARO does little research on its own but provides funding to outside entities, principally universities.