Lesquerella is a genus of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family. Of over 100 species identied, 83 are native to North America. Most of these species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico [1-3]. Lesquerella seeds contain oil rich in one of three types of hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs): lesquerolic (14-hydroxy-cis-11-eicosenoic), auricolic (14-hydroxy-11,17-eicosadienoic), or densipolic (12-hydroxy-cis-9,15-octadienoic) acid (Figure 9.1) [1,4-7]. L. lindheimeri and L. pallida, both native to Texas, have the highest lesquerolic acid content (>80%). L. densipila, a native to Alabama and Tennessee, has oil containing 44% densipolic and 11% ricinoleic acids. L. auriculata, a native to Texas and Oklahoma, has oil with 40% auriculic and 11% lesquerolic acids, and 90% occur as estolides [5,6,8,9]. HFAs are used in a variety of industrial applications such as lubricants, corrosion inhibitors, engineering plastics, plasticizers, emulsiers, and coatings. The current primary source of HFAs is castor oil, which contains 90% ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecanoic) acid (Figure 9.1).