At its simplest, the business model that a big pharma company follows is one of product creation. The elements of that creation are research and development (R&D) and promotion by massive sales forces, followed by aggressive patent defense. R&D is required to create patentable products that offer cures or significant amelioration of symptoms for a disease and then try to extend the longevity of sales by life cycle management once a product brand starts to generate revenue. Massive sales and marketing organizations try to minimize the time to peak sales through huge commercial spend, and intellectual property departments work extremely hard at delaying generic competition to their branded patent protected medicines.