What does gender have to do with disaster? And why focus on women and girls? Are women’s and men’s lives so different in a disaster? If so, why is this, and what does it mean for emergency management? To help answer these questions, the chapter starts by defining major concepts that are useful for understanding gender dynamics. Next, a conceptual framework for gender analysis and a statistical snapshot of gender relations in the contemporary United States is provided. Then, gender concerns are examined through the life cycle of disasters, drawing primarily on events from the United States, with a few international examples. The chapter concludes with practical steps toward more effective and equitable emergency management.