As a fundamental human right, a healthy quality of life translates to safety and well-being throughout the disaster life cycle. In this chapter, health is treated as a broad concept that extends beyond the existence of disease and considers its implications for emergency management. In one respect, health is a condition that is superimposed upon other characteristics, such as gender, age, race, or class, but it is also an indicator of vulnerability. Additionally, health status is also linked to the health-care and public health systems, both of which also act as critical infrastructure and are directly relevant to a discussion of vulnerability. This chapter explores these relationships to further an understanding of the health aspects of vulnerability.