Fouling of heat exchangers has been estimated to represent an annual expense in the United States of somewhere between $4.2 and $10 billion . Fouling is something that is unwanted and counterproductive. The presence of fouling on heat exchange surfaces causes additional costs due to the following reasons:
1. Increased capital expenditure due to oversizing 2. Energy losses associated with poor performance of the equipment 3. Treatment cost to lessen corrosion and fouling 4. Lost production due to maintenance schedules 5. Reduction of time in service
Economic considerations should be among the most inuential parameters for determining appropriate allowances for fouling. It is important to determine a strategy as to whether rst cost, operating and maintenance cost, or total cost over a period of years is the objective.