INTRODUCTION 1.1 REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES Concrete is arguably the most important building material, playing a part in all building structures. Its virtue is its versatility, i.e. its ability to be moulded to take up the shapes required for the various structural forms. It is also very durable and fire resistant when specification and construction procedures are correct. Concrete can be used for all standard buildings both single-storey and multi-storey and for containment and retaining structures and bridges. Some of the common building structures are shown in Fig. 1.1 and are as follows:

1. The single-storey portal supported on isolated footings. 2. The medium-rise framed structure which may be braced by shear walls or

unbraced. The building may be supported on isolated footings, strip foundations or a raft.