This chapter aims to provide an example of the overall interaction between theoretical analysis, soil characteristics, predicted behaviour and measured field behaviour using a variety of instruments.

Tunnelling, and in particular urban tunnelling, is becoming a major component of modern infrastructure improvements. In the last three decades there have been major advances in tunnelling techniques, particularly in the development of many new forms of tunnelling machines (e.g. earth pressure balance machines, multi-headed rotary cutters, very large shieldswith built in excavators) and the development of sprayed concrete, together with NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Technique), instrumentation and support techniques.