Materials play an important role in the development of technology and the evolution of modern civilization. Ancient civilizations have been named after the materials used in that period. During the Stone Age (10,000 BC to 3,000 BC), people used only the materials found around them, such as stone, wood, and bone. They used these materials to make weapons to kill the animals for their food. During the Bronze Age (3000 BC to 1000 BC), people were able to extract copper from its ore. During the Iron Age (1000 BC to AD 1860), the extraction of iron from its ores signaled another major development. Heat treatment processes were developed during this period. In the Steel Age (AD 1860 onward), Bessemer and open hearth processes for the production of steel were developed. The general use of steel as a construction material started during this period. From 1950 onward, the era is named the Silicon Age. The development of silicon has led to the development of electronics, computers, and automation. It is very clear from the history that the development of materials is the prime factor for the development of civilization.