Integrated circuit (IC) andmicroelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

fabrication must be carried out in specially constructed clean rooms

where particles per cubic meter and their sizes in the air are held to

a very low level. This is to avoid contamination of the MEMS wafers

and devices during fabrication as air-borne particles are generally

bigger than the smallest MEMS features and can cause fabrication

errors and low yield.