The ubiquitous semiconductor device, often referred to as a silicon

chip or integrated circuit (IC), is manufactured from one of two

technologies, namely, the complementary-metal-oxide semiconduc-

tor (CMOS) and the bipolar-junction transistor. CMOS is used to

manufacture digital logic, and the bipolar-junction transistor is used

to manufacture analogue components, such as amplifiers for signal

processing. A hybrid technology has been developed from CMOS and

the bipolar transistor and is known as BiCMOS.