Introduction The birth and growth of the computer industry in the United States and Europe, during the decades of the 1950s to 1980s, demanded new tools and metrics for decision making. The computer generated new quantities of data of various types and availability, and produced new information on manufacturing and operational processes for executives, managers, and workers, and project management and analysts for government and military leaders. The computer became a dependent variable in decision making. The rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) expert system software, during the 1980s to 1990s, from the United States, Europe, and Asia, started pulling decision-making tools from the custody of the analyst’s cubicles into the CEO’s and military’s senior executive service offices.