DOI link for Modular Arithmetic
Modular Arithmetic book
Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometric ratio. Subsistence only increases in an arithmetical ratio.
From Chapter 1 of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), English political economist
In this chapter, we learn about the important topic of congruences and the modular arithmetic underlying the theory.