Succeeding roots repeat the first n roots. Hence, a lin has n distinct roots. In polar form, the n roots fall on a circle whose radius is rl/n and whose arguments are equally spaced by 2n/n.

One must develop the calculus of complex variables in a treatment that parallels the calculus of real variables. Thus, one must define a neighborhood of a point, regions, functions, limits, continuity, derivatives, and integrals. In each case, the corresponding treatment of real variables will be presented to give a clearer picture of the ideas being presented.