Often, activities of industries in general will come into conict with the goals of a sustainable environment. This is based on the assumption that (1) nonrenewable natural resources (materials and energy) are required to fuel the engine of industry, (2) nonrenewable source materials are used in the production or manufacture of goods, and (3) the smokestack emissions and discharge of liquid and solid wastes from these industries are harmful to both human health and the environment (Figure 12.1).