High strength Pavement Increase Increase Well graded Reduce Low permeability Liner Reduce Reduce Well graded Increase High permeability Drainage layer Increase Increase Uniformly/poorly graded Reduce Durability Breakwater Increase Increase – Reduce

• Pavement materials are typically granular with low fines content. • Larger nominal sizing has the greatest strength, but an excessive size creates

pavement rideabilty and compaction issues. • The optimum strength is obtained with a well graded envelope. • Some fines content is useful in obtaining a well graded envelope but an excessive

amount reduces the overall strength.