Pipes Gradient 1.0% to 2.5% as too flat or steep and solids left behind leading to blocking of pipe

• The immediate settlement is calculated using elastic theory. • Consolidation settlements occur with time as water is expelled from the soil. • Creep settlement (also called secondary compression) occurs as a change of

structure occurs. • Effects of compaction discussed in chapter 12. • Compaction induced settlement is due to removal of air while consolidation is

removal of water.