Geological model Ground model Geotechnical model

Engineering geologist Geotechnical engineer

Model by Geotechnical engineer in simple cases Obtain site data Develop geological model – relevant geological structures Provide key ground related issues; site history Identify regional issues affecting site Work with Geotechnical engineer to develop site specific solution

Model by Engineering geologist in simple cases Carry out testing to an acceptable level Develop geotechnical models (parameters for design) Recognise and provide site constraints – e.g. slopes or allowable bearing capacity; site future use Suggest ground solutions Work with Engineering geologist to implement ground issues into the design

• Reality is too complicated. We therefore use models: – a simplification of reality. These can be – Financial and scheduling models – Geological and geotechnical models – Laboratory models – Analytical and design models – Hydrology and flow models – Regression and statistical models

• We therefore solve models. Solving a model does not mean we have solved the problem, and there is a need to constantly check we have not over simplified the reality i.e. is the solution to the model also a reasonable solution to the reality.