As a new, heavy weight player in the international arena, it is very important for other members of this arena to understand China with reasonable expectations in order to bring about mutually beneficial economic consequences. To achieve this goal, this chapter is devoted to the discussion of modern China by looking at its current state of economic and financial operations in particular and by looking at China at the height of civilization in general. By doing so, it is expected that all the players of the international economy and the international financial system could understand how decisions are made in China and what could be expected from Chinese leadership.