Science works. From initial empirical insights to theoretical explorations and nally to implemented designs we have managed to create a standard of living (for some) that was inconceivable a few decades ago. As John O’M. Bockis states in the foreword to the book Future Energy, “we have grown fat and happy on carbon.” Process efciencies have increased steadily; with continuing advancements in nanotechnology and analytical and computational methods. it is likely that they will continue to do so as the depth of our understanding of atomic level processes grows. We have a variety of energy options that could, potentially, reduce our dependence on carbon and begin to assuage the current assault on the environment. That is the good news. But as Bockis goes on to add “. . . the banquet is on its last course and there is really not much time left” (Letcher 2008).