## ABSTRACT

Starting from two Hilbert spaces H1 and H2 of dimension N1 and N2, respectively, one can construct a larger Hilbert space

H = H1 ⊗H2, (32.1) a sort of union of the two. The space H is called the tensor product of H1 and H2. State vectors and operators of these spaces will be denoted by an index, (1) or (2). Associated with a pair of state vectors |φ(1)〉 and |χ(2)〉 belongs a state vector

|φ(1)〉 ⊗ |χ(2)〉 ≡ |φ(1)〉|χ(2)〉 ≡ |φ(1)χ(2)〉 (32.2) in the combined Hilbert space. Let us choose basis sets {|un(1)〉} and {|uk(2)〉} for H1 and H2. In terms of these one can express the arbitrary vectors |φ(1)〉 and |χ(2)〉 as follows:

|φ(1)〉 = ∑ n

an|un(1)〉, (32.3)

|χ(2)〉 = ∑ k

bk|vk(2)〉. (32.4)

In the Hilbert space H one may use a basis {|un(1)⊗ |vk(2)〉〉} for expansion of the tensor product in Eq. (32.2). Thus,

|φ(1)〉 ⊗ |χ(2)〉 = ∑ n,k

anbk|un(1)〉 ⊗ |vk(2)〉. (32.5)

The components of a tensor product state vector in H hence are products, anbk, of components of the two state vectors in the Hilbert spaces H1 and H2. The most general state vector in H, |ψ〉, can in the basis {|un(1)〉 ⊗ |vk(2)〉} be expanded as follows:

|ψ〉 = ∑ n,k

cnk|un(1)〉 ⊗ |vk(2)〉, (32.6)

where the double index nk on the expansion coefficient cnk specifies the vector axes in H. Although an arbitrary vector |ψ〉 in H cannot be written as a single vector product of two vectors in H1 and H2 [Eq. (32.5)], |ψ〉 can always be decomposed into a linear combination of tensor product vectors [Eq. (32.6)]. This result relates to the fact that the elements of an arbitrary matrix {cnk} cannot in general be given as the elements {anbk} of a dyadic product of two vectors with components {an} and {bk}. The scalar product in H of two arbitrary basis vectors, |un(1)〉 ⊗ |vk(2)〉 and |un′(1)〉 ⊗ |vk′(2)〉, is given by

〈un′(1)vk′(2)|un(1)vk(2)〉 = 〈un′(1)|un(1)〉〈vk′ (2)|vk(2)〉 = δnn′δkk′ . (32.7)

of

The last member of Eq. (32.7) is obtained provided each of the bases {|un(1)〉} and |vk(2)〉 is orthonormal in its respective Hilbert space. If this is the case, the basis in H, i.e., {|un〉⊗ |vk(2)〉}, is orthonormal, too.