A rectangular array of mn elements arranged in m rows and n columns is

called an m/n (read m by n ) matrix. If the element in the ith row and jth column of matrix A is denoted by aij we write


a11 a12 a1n a21 a22 a2n

am1 am2 amn

2 664

3 775

|fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl} n columns

m rows:

The elements of a matrix may either be numbers (real or complex) or func-

tions, and the numbers m/n describe the shape of the matrix (it has m rows and n columns).