## ABSTRACT

The plane polar coordinates (r, u ) identify the position of a point P in the plane by giving its radial distance r from a fixed origin O (the pole), and the

angle u measured anticlockwise in radians from a fixed reference line

through O called the polar axis, to the radial line joining the origin to point

P. The polar coordinate system is shown in Fig. 20. This figure shows also

that the polar angle u is not unique because for any given r and u the point

P (r, u) will be the same as the points P (r, u9/2np ) for n/0, 1, 2, . . . . To remove this ambiguity, it is usual to confine u to the interval 00/u0/2p.