After site assessment and remedial investigation, if compounds of concern (COCs) in the subsurface at a site exceed the acceptable levels, remediation and/or removal of the impacted soil would be required. Many remedial technologies have been developed and utilized to remediate impacted soil. These technologies can be categorized into physical, chemical, biological, and thermal methods. The technologies can also be applied in situ and/or ex situ. The remedial objective is to reduce the COC concentrations below acceptable cleanup levels.