When an aquifer is impacted, groundwater extraction is often needed. Groundwater extraction mainly serves two purposes: (1) to minimize the plume migration or spreading, and (2) to reduce the concentrations of compounds of concern (COCs) in the impacted aquifer. The extracted water often needs to be treated before being put back into the aquifer or released to surface water. Pump-and-treat is a general term used in groundwater remediation that extracts impacted groundwater and treats it aboveground.