The agile project management methodology described in Chapter 4 dates back to 1992, when Dr. Alistair Cockburn, an internationally recognized expert in software development, started the creation of a family of human-powered, adaptive, ultralight, stretch-to-fit project management methodologies for managing software development, now known as the Crystal family. They achieve project success through greater involvement of users, Lean methods to reduce paperwork, overhead, and bureaucracy, as well as starting small and growing a project as opposed to trying to plan the entire project at the onset. Crystal and agile are the founding methodologies of what is commonly known today as adaptive project management.