This chapter examines the effect regulation, albeit nascent, is having or may have on the commercialization of nanomaterials in the pharmaceutical and medical elds in the United States and abroad. It will also discuss how authorities are addressing the effects the application of nanotechnology are believed to be having on the environment. It will examine the types of regulatory schemes being enacted or considered, and whether different systems are likely to have differing effects on nanomedicine, including the effect on competition among companies and countries.