ABSTRACT

Beaches are coastal ecosystems that are affected by both marine and terrestrial influences (McLachlan & Brown, 2006). For beach-spawning fishes, these ecosystems are critical for survival at the earliest stages of life. But beaches are also playgrounds and important recreation area for humans, and often are managed more for human safety and health than for their wilderness value (Bird, 1996; James, 2000). Beaches also have cultural legacies and the right of everyone to coastal access is protected and defended. However, with increasing human populations, pressures on all kinds of shorelines are growing as well (Defeo et al., 2009).