ABSTRACT

It is nearly impossible today for any type of wildlife to find a pristine location absent from human influence. The same can be said for many beach-spawning fishes that come to the water’s edge along heavily populated coastlines, where their vulnerable embryos develop in the footprints of cities, ports, marinas, and recreation areas. How can these small, innocent fishes manage to survive in the face of all these threats? Whether by direct harm or simply by neglect, the anthropogenic impact is large, and the result for the fishes is often negative.