The presently used Moldovan farming systems are not sustainable. The unsustainability of the present farming systems are indicated by the following: (i) the leveling off or declining yields of most crops, both on average for the Republic of Moldova and in the long-term field experiments conducted by Selectia Research Institute of Field Crops (RIFC) in Balti (northern part of Moldova), and (ii) the experimentally monitored decreases in the stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) as result of uncompensated annual losses (e.g., mineralization, leaching, and erosion).