Since the widespread food deficits in Asia and the initial implementation of agricultural development concepts in the 1960s, the world’s population has virtually doubled to 7 billion. Fortunately, timely agriculture interventions based on the adoption of modern inputs (i.e., fertilizers, improved seeds, crop protection products), coupled with rapid expansion of irrigated areas, led to a doubling of world cereal production, enabling billions of additional people to be fed. This scientifically based “Green Revolution,” with its significant impacts on cereal crop production, negated the predictions of recurring and widespread famines and provided the foundation for food security.