Escherichia coli and total coliform are biological indices for pollution and contamination in water. Presence of fecal coliform bacteria in aquatic environment results from contamination of water with feces of humans or animals. At the time this occurred, the source water might have been contaminated by pathogens or disease-producing bacteria, which can also exist in fecal materials. These waterborne pathogenic bacteria remain a major health concern and are causing

large number of deaths and hospitalization each year. Diarrhea caused by contaminated water is one of the serious problems. The fecal coliform bacteria may occur in ambient water as a result of the overlow of domestic sewage or nonpoint sources of human and other animal waste. This chapter describes the removal of E. coli and total coliform using conducting polymer nanocomposite-based membrane. Silver nanoparticles were prepared by the addition of silver nitrate and ethylene glycol solution in PVP/sodium hypophosphite. This membrane has been developed by in situ polymerization of pyrrole with silver nanoparticles into the activated carbon (AC) coated iber in different concentration. Conducting polymer composite-based membranes were characterized by TGA analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and XRD analysis, which indicate the inclusion of polymer and silver nanoparticles in the carbon iber membrane. Transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the surface morphology as well as size of nanoparticle incorporated in the membrane matrix. Evaluation of the membrane for antimicrobial activity (removal of total coliform and E. coli) has been carried out by membrane iltration method. M-endo broth is used for selectively isolating coliform bacteria from water using membrane iltration method. Data were compared with uncoated AC iber and only silver nanoparticles coated carbon iber. Results revealed that conducting polymer-silver nanoparticle compositebased membrane showed markedly enhanced antimicrobial properties. This chapter will also describe the compatibility between the organic conducting polymer and inorganic silver nanoparticles in the carbon iber matrix. Moreover, the synergistic role of conducting polymer and silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial activity for wastewater treatment will also be described.